The Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA) (20 U.S.C. § 1232h; 34 CFR Part 98) applies to student surveys, instructional materials or evaluations funded by the federal government that deal with highly sensitive issues. Parents have the right of written consent before their children are required to participate in any federally funded survey, analysis or […]


The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. § 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99) is a federal law allows schools to disclose to vendors, consultants and contractors for administrative, instructional or assessment purposes (known as the “school official/contractor” exception) and/or to organizations or individuals for vaguely-defined evaluation or audit purposes, student PII without […]


The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) was enacted by Congress in 2000 to address concerns about children’s access to obscene or harmful content over the Internet. CIPA imposes certain requirements on schools or libraries that receive discounts for Internet access or internal connections through the E-Rate program – a program that makes certain communications services […]


The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) was enacted by Congress in 1998, and it is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission. The primary goal of COPPA is to allow parents to have control over what information is collected online from their children under age 13. The law applies to any operators of websites, online […]